Battery Glossary


Acid Density: It is a measure of how dilute the acid used as electrolyte in the battery is.

Active Material: A paste formed from a mixture of various chemicals, which determines the capacity of the battery or the starting power by forming a chemical reaction with the acid in the battery.

Aging: It is the phase change process of the lead parts in the battery depending on time.

AGM (Absorbent Glass Mat Battery): These are powerful batteries developed for Start-Stop vehicles, in which electrolyte is produced by impregnating the separators.

Air Mix: It is a system used in traction batteries. In batteries with Airmix system, air is pressed into the cells with the help of a special rectifier during charging, and the electrolyte is mixed and homogenized.

Ammeter: It is a device used to measure the current flowing through the cable.


Battery: It is a device that stores electrical energy as chemical energy and turns this energy back into electrical energy when a receiver is connected to its circuit and gives it to the external circuit.

Battery Depletion: It is the condition that the battery becomes inoperable, which is called battery exhaustion in the market. Most of the time, a state of not working due to loss of charge is perceived as a dead battery. After consulting an authorized service, the battery should be replaced if necessary.

Battery Freeze: Although the definition of battery freezing is used in the market, what actually freezes is not the battery, but the electrolyte inside. If the battery is in the discharge state, the freezing process is accelerated.

Box: It is the plastic chamber-shaped part that contains all the components of the battery.


Capacity: Defined as amp-hours. Indicates the total power that can be drawn from a battery in amps. The capacity of the battery depends on the surface area of ​​the plates, their number and the permeability of the separators used.

Capacity Drop: It is the capacity value below the capacity specified on the label of the battery.

CCA (Cold Cranking Current): It is the cold (vehicle engine) starting current.

Cell: It is the name given to the compartments inside the battery box. There are 6 cells in total in 12V batteries. There is an electric current of 2V in each cell.

Central Gas Discharge System: It is the system that allows the gases coming out of the cells to be collected and discharged over a single route.

Charging: It is the process of storing electrical energy as chemical energy by feeding the battery with an electrical source.

Charge Current: The current value suitable for charging the battery.

Closed System Cover: It is a cover system that does not allow the battery to be interfered with from the outside.

Connector: It is the connection equipment

Corrosion: It is the failure that occurs as a result of waiting for a long time without charging or deep discharges, it is also called permanent sulfation.

COS : It is a welding machine that enables the connection of positive and negative electrolots in the battery cell.

Cover: It is the part that is attached to the box during the assembly process and is used to isolate the components inside the battery from the external environment.

Cranking Power: It is the discharge current specified as Ampere(A) that provides the 7.5V voltage that a fully charged battery reaches at the end of the 10th second at -18.0 °C. DIN, EN, IEC, SAE, JIS, TS, etc. can be defined in such norms.

Curing: It is the heat treatment applied to complete the chemical transformation of the plates in the battery.

Current: Electric current describes the electrical power flowing through an electrical circuit. Its unit is "Ampere(A)".

Cycle: The charge and discharge of a battery.

Cycle Life: It is the number of charge-discharge cycles of a battery.


Deep Discharge: It is the discharge of the battery to lower voltage levels than the minimum voltage level specified in the standards.

Density: It is the mass per unit volume.

Discharge: The energy stored chemically in the battery is converted into electrical energy to feed a system.

Discharge Current: It is the current drawn from the battery during the discharge process.

Double Cover: It is a second cover attached to the plugs in order to prevent leakage and to gain a fully closed feature on the cover where the battery connects with the box.


EFB (Enhanced Flooded Battery): They are powered water batteries developed for Start-Stop vehicles.

Electrolyte: It is the form of pure acid diluted with pure water. The final density value optimized for high cycle number, low corrosion and maximum conductivity in batteries is 1.285 g/cm³.

Electrode: It is the plate with positive or negative ion charge that ensures the formation of polarity in the battery.

Element Set: It is the name given to paired positive and negative plates with envelope separator combined with lead welding.

Energy: The ability to do work. According to the working principle of the battery, it converts electrical energy into chemical energy and chemical energy into electrical energy.

Energy Density: It is the amount of energy that a unit weight of a battery can give.

Exmet: It is the grid production type. Lead ingots are formed into strips and become grids by drawing-expansion method in the exmet machine.

Explosion: Hydrogen gas in the battery, arc, etc. It is a malfunction that occurs as a result of damage to the box-cover with


Full Frame Plate: It is a grill type surrounded by a lead alloy frame on all four sides.

Fully Maintenance-Free: It is a battery type that does not require external intervention.


Gas Discharge Hole: It is the evacuation way that allows the gases generated as a result of chemical reactions inside the battery to be discharged out of the battery.

Gas Throwing: It is the process of throwing the gases that are formed as a result of the chemical reactions inside the battery to the outside of the battery.

Gel: The electrolyte in the battery undergoing a special process to be in gel form instead of liquid state.

Gel Battery: It is the name given to the lead acid battery with gelled electrolyte.

Gravity Casting: It is a casting technique applied by taking advantage of the effect of the gravitational force.

Grid: The lead skeleton on which the active substance is plastered and conducts the electric current.

Grift Break: It is a malfunction that occurs as a result of the breaking of the pole head, tailstock and element ear.


Heavy Vehicle: It is the type of battery used in commercial vehicles such as trucks, buses, tractors. They are powered batteries suitable for shaking and harsh road conditions.

Handle: It is the part for carrying the battery.

High Current Charging: It is to charge the battery with a higher than the recommended charging current value.

High Current Discharge: It is to discharge the battery with a current higher than the discharge value specified on the battery label.

Hydrometer: Density measurement tool used to measure the electrolyte density in the battery.


Indicator: It is a part that gives information about the electrolyte density of a single cell on the battery.

Industrial Battery: It is the name given to the batteries specially developed for industrial uses.

Initial Charge: It is the charging process to ensure that the battery reaches the required voltage level after the battery assembly process is completed.


Lead: It is a metal element with atomic number 82 and atomic mass of 207.2.

Lead Sulfate: It is the chemical compound that comes out during the discharge process.

Lead-Acid Battery: It is an energy storage system in which lead is used as the electrode and sulfuric acid is used as the electrolyte.

Life: It is the time period in which the expected performance from the battery is provided.


Maintenance Free: It is a battery that does not require maintenance (no need for pure water) under normal conditions.


Negative Electrode: It is the negatively charged plate.

Negative Plate: It is the negatively charged electrode.

Nominal Voltage: It is the voltage level indicated on the battery label.


Over Discharge: It is the case that the battery is over-discharged due to the user or the vehicle. It is the continuous current draw of the battery without being charged at all.

Overcharge (burn): It is a malfunction that occurs as a result of the pouring and deformation of the active substance (dough) on the plates.

Oxidation: It is the corrosion of the lead metal in the battery terminals by chemical reaction with oxygen.


Parallel Connection: Batteries can be connected in parallel in rectifier charging process. In parallel connection, the currents must be collected and the rectifier must be adjusted. (This is not recommended) Serial connection should be made.

Paste: The dough plastered on the plates as a result of the mixture of chemical substances.

Plate: A predominantly lead skeletal structure on which the active substance is plastered.

Plug: It is a material made of acid-resistant polypropylene material and designed to automatically discharge the gas released during the charging of the battery.

Polarity: Polarization

Pole Head: It is the conductive part that provides the electrical connection of the battery with the systems around it.

Pole Protection Cover: It is the cover that keeps the terminal head away from possible external impacts.

Position: Refers to the location of the positive and negative terminals on the battery.

Positive Electrode: It is the positively charged plate.

Positive Plate: It is the positively charged electrode.

Positive Pole: It is the pole to which the positive plates are connected in the battery.

Pure Water (Bee-Water): It is a compound consisting of 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen atom, with a density of 1 g/cm³, without any element or ion.


Rectifier: Battery Charger

Remaining Capacity: It is the difference between the total capacity of the battery and its used capacity.


Self-Discharge: It is the loss of capacity experienced in the battery over time when the battery is not connected to any load.

Separator: PE, PVC, Glassmat, AGM material that prevents negative and positive plates from forming short circuits by contacting each other.

Series Connection: Batteries can be connected in series in rectifier charging process. In series connection, voltages must be summed and rectifier must be adjusted.

Shelf Life: The time a battery can spend in the shelf without needing to be recharged.

Short Circuit: It is the fault that occurs as a result of the positive and negative plates contacting each other.

Silver-Tin Alloy: It is an alloy formed by combining silver and tin elements in certain proportions. Increases corrosion resistance in battery grids.

Standard Capacity (Ah): It is the capacity value specified on the battery label.

Start-Stop: Start-Stop, that is, stop-go system, is a system that helps to prevent energy loss by automatically turning off the ignition when your vehicle is stopped at heavy traffic or at traffic lights, and starting it again when the driver presses the clutch.

State of Charge: It is the parameter that shows the amount of energy stored by the battery.

Stationary: These are the batteries used in fixed facilities.

Sublink: These are the retaining tabs at the bottom of the battery box. It is designed for connection to the tool base.

Sulphation: It is a malfunction that occurs as a result of the accumulation of sulfate ions in the electrolyte in the battery on the plate surface.


Terminal Type: It refers to the dimensional difference of the positive and negative terminals in the batteries.

Traction: It is the type of industrial battery used in mobile systems.


Valve: It is the material used to regulate the gas output during the operation of the battery.

Voltage: Electrically, for current to move in a circuit, there must be electrical pressure between the terminals. This is called POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE or VOLTAGE between poles. Its unit is "VOLT(V)".

Voltage Drop: It is the voltage loss experienced in the battery.

Voltmeter: It is the instrument used to measure the voltage of the battery.

VRLA: Valve regulated lead-acid accumulator.